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Liu Hulan : Dari Gadis Desa Menjadi Ikon Revolusi
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Liu Hulan : Dari Gadis Desa Menjadi Ikon Revolusi

  • Written by  Huang Dada
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Budaya-Tionghoa.Net | Liu Hulan [1932-1947] terlahir sebagai Liu Fulan di desa Yunzhou , kabupaten Wenshui , Provinsi Shanxi. Bagi kaum komunis , Liu digambarkan sebagai pahlawan wanita yang menjadi martir yang mendukung perjuangan Eight Route Army[1].  Sebagai seorang anak perempuan dari keluarga petani , Liu Hulan masih berusia empat tahun ketika ibunya meninggal karena sakit.

ARTIKEL TERKAIT :

{module [201]}


“生的伟大, 死的光荣”

a great life and a honorable death [10]

[Mao Zedong]

Ayah Liu kemudian menikah lagi dan Liu berserta saudaranya hidup dengan kakek dan neneknya. Desa dimana Liu tinggal merupakan sarang pergerakan gerilya dimasa Sino-Japanese War II hingga perang saudara antara Komunis – Nasionalis , sehingga disebut sebagai “Little Yan’an”. [Yan’an sendiri merupakan ibukota kaum komunis pada masa itu.] Desa dimana Liu tinggal sebagian besar adalah anggota Partai Komunis Tiongkok dan terlibat dalam pasukan perbekalan , mengumpulkan dana dan membuat perlengkapan seperti sepatu dan pakaian bagi pasukan komunis.  Liu Hulan dalam usia sepuluh tahun [1942] berperan sebagai kurir , mengirimkan surat ke pihak gerilyawan dan sebagai penjaga pada setiap pertemuan desa.

Mobilisasi wanita untuk berpartisipasi dalam perang gerilya di pihak komunis adalah hal yang umum pada masa pendudukan Jepang dan perang saudara berhubungan dengan kampanye persamaan hak wanita. Selain , Liu Hulan , pejuang wanita lain seperti Liu Suying , mempunyai dua alasan untuk berjuang. Pertama untuk mempertahankan negara menghadapi agresi Jepang . Kedua , untuk emansipasi wanita. Wanita didorong untuk mendukung perjuangan kaum pria . Pejuang wanita bisa berpartisipasi dalam hal spionase , sabotase , kurir , perawat . Ditambah lagi sikap tentara Komunis yang disiplin , berbeda dengan pasukan Jepang dan pasukan Nasionalis yang dikenal suka menjarah dan melakukan pemerkosaan.[2]

Titik balik bagi kehidupan Liu terjadi pada tahun 1945 ketika dia menentang keinginan neneknya dan mengikuti sebuah latihan selama 40 hari yang dikhususkan bagi wanita. Setelah kembali ke desanya , Liu Hulan antusias dalam pekerjaannya menjadi sekretaris unit desa untuk gerakan wanita anti-Jepang. Liu berkerja berjam-jam dalam setiap harinya  dan memobilisasi wanita lain untuk terlibat. [3]Dan dibulan-bulan berikutnya unit wanita ini terus memberi dukungan bagi prajurit dengan membuat perlengkapan seragam dan perawatan bagi prajurit yang terluka. Liu Hulan kemudian mengajukan keanggotaan Partai Komunis Tiongkok tetapi usianya masih dibawah umur , masih berusia 14 tahun , sehingga keanggotaannya ditunda sampai Liu berusia 18 tahun.

Liu Hulan juga terlibat dalam gerakan land reform , membantu dalam alokasi tanah yang berhasil dirampas dari tuan tanah kepada para petani sekaligus menyelesaikan persengketaan yang mungkin timbul dari pembagian tanah. Ditahun 1946 , partai memutuskan untuk memindahkan kader-kader pemimpin termasuk Liu Hulan kedaerah yang aman di markas gerilyawan. Tetapi Liu Hulan memutuskan untuk tetap berada didesanya dan percaya bahwa usianya yang masih sangat muda akan meloloskan dia dari kecurigaan musuh.

Pada tanggal 12 Januari 1947 , tentara Nasionalis memasuki desa Liu Hulan. Mereka menyita hasil panen desa dan mengumpulkan seluruh penduduk kedalam satu tempat. Komandan pasukan meminta para anggota PKT untuk menyerahkan diri. Ketika tidak ada satupun yang mengaku , komandan pasukan meminta seorang penghianat untuk mengidentifikasi siapa saja yang komunis. Dan beberapa orang termasuk Liu Hulan berhasil di identifikasi dan kemudian dipisahkan. Melihat Liu masih sangat muda , komandan pasukan membujuk dirinya untuk berubah pikiran dan menjadi informan. Liu tetap menolak tawaran tersebut. Sang komandan kemudian memutuskan untuk memenggal salah satu anggota komunis didepan Liu. Namun usaha ini tidak berhasil , Liu tetap menolak untuk menyebutkan nama . Komandan memberikan satu kesempatan terakhir yang lagi lagi ditolak oleh Liu yang malah menghampiri alat eksekusi didepan penduduk desa lainnya. [4]

APRESIASI

Atas dedikasinya , Partai Komunis Tiongkok memberikan keanggotaan penuh secara anumerta kepada Liu Hulan. Mao Zedong menyebut dirinya sebagai “kehidupan yang agung dan kematian terhormat”  “生的伟大, 死的光荣”. Mao juga meminta Xinhua untuk mempublikasi kisah kepahlawanan Liu Hulan dan menyerukan rakyat yang berada diwilayah yang sudah dibebaskan untuk mengorganisasi satu studi mengenai dirinya.  Liu Hulan menjadi pahlawan nasional setelah Republik Rakyat Tiongkok berdiri di tahun 1949 dan menjadi ikon devosi politik dalam sejarah Partai Komunis Tiongkok.

Kisah Liu Hulan masuk dalam berbagai bentuk puisi , opera[5],  cerita pendek dan buku pelajaran sekolah. Cai Ruhong mempublikasi sebuah surat kepada suatu lembaga pendidikan seni yang secara implicit meng-advokasi batasan ketat terhadap kreativitas siswa dan mengajukan usulan daftar topik yang layak untuk dilukis seperti “Liu Hulan Mengantarkan Sepatu” baik dalam format vertical [lukisan gulung] maupun lukisan horizontal.[6] Dimasa Revolusi Kebudayaan , poster-poster Liu Hulan menjadi hadiah yang umum dikalangan Garda Merah.[7]

[ Poster Liu Hulan , dibuat oleh salah satu Institute seni di Beijing. Tulisan dalam poster itu berkata :” Dihadirkan untuk Tang Fandi. Rakyat diseluruh dunia bersatu ! Hancurkan imperialisme AS . Tahun 1967 , International Woman Day , Beijing Languange Institute , 37 X 26 cm ][8].

Liu Hulan menjadi barometer ukuran kepahlawan wanita . Dalam satu insiden , salah satu jurnal di Liaoning mempublikasi satu artikel untuk merehabilitasi Zhang Zhixin 张志新[1930-1975] . [9] Tidak sampai sebulan , artikel itu menjadi kontroversi . Hu Yaobang menyatakan bahwa , Zhang Zhixin adalah seorang pahlawan wanita yang setaraf dengan Liu Hulan. Pemerintah kemudian mendirikan Liu Hulan Memorial Hall yang terletak di Provinsi Shanxi . Memorial hall rampung dibangun diatas lahan seluas 60 ribu meter persegi, pada bulan Januari 1957 tepat 10 tahun gugurnya Liu Hulan.

DADA

REFERENSI :

  1. Lili Xiao , Clara Ho ,”Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women”, 2003
  2. Lincoln Cushing , Ann Tompkins , “Chinese Posters : Art From The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”,
  3. Julia Andrews ,”Painter And Politics In The People Republic of Cina , 1949-1979”,
  4. Ip Yung Hok , “ Intellectuals In Revolutionary China , 1921-1949” , 2005
  5. Zhao Chenxi , “ Liu Hulan The Youngest Female CPC Died In The Revolution”, The Woman of China , 2011
  6. Elizabeth Croll , “Feminism And Socialism In China” , 1978



[1] Julia Andrews , p221

[2] Croll , p206

[3] ibid

[4] Woman of China , 2011

[5] Ip Yung Hok , p139

[6] Julia Andrews , p221

[7] Cushing , Tompkins , p34

[8] ibid

[9] Sebelumnya Zhang Zhixin terkenal karena kritikan terhadap Mao Zedong , karenanya dia dipenjara selama enam tahun , disiksa dan di eksekusi.

[10]Lili Xiao , Clara Ho , p358

 

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Sejarah


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Budaya


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Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Tionghoa


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Seni


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Filsafat


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Sains


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Esai & Opini


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Resensi Buku


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Album Foto


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 652

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 654