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Aliran-Aliran Buddhisme Tiongkok
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Aliran-Aliran Buddhisme Tiongkok

  • Written by  Ivan Taniputera
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Budaya-Tionghoa.Net|Masuknya agama Buddha ke Tiongkok masih diliputi oleh banyak legenda. Oleh karenanya, pada kesempatan kali ini saya hanya ingin memperkenalkan saja aliran-aliran agama Buddha utama yang berkembang di Tiongkok. Berikut ini adalah aliran-aliran agama Buddha khas Tiongkok.

 

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1.Aliran Faxiang atau Yogachara

Pendiri atau tokoh utamanya adalah Xuanzang. Pada masa mudanya Xuanzang merasakan kebingungan spiritual karena banyak terjemahan sutra2 Buddhis yang saling berbeda satu sama lain. Itulah yang mendorongnya pergi ke India guna mencari naskah asli bagi pustaka-pustaka suci Buddhis. Sepulangnya dari Tiongkok, Xuanzang melakukan karya penerjemahan berbagai sutra-sutra Buddhis dan menjadi pelopor pendirian aliran Faxiang atau Yogachara. Ajaran utama aliran ini adalah menekankan bahwa segenap fenomena itu hanyalah bentukan pikiran semata.

2.Aliran Jingdu atau Sukhavati

Aliran ini didirikan oleh Huiyuan. Sutra utamanya adalah Sukhavati Vyuha Sutra dan Amitabha Sutra. Inti ajarannya adalah pengulangan nama Amitabhda Buddha atau Namo Amiduofo, sehingga kelak dapat terlahir di Alam Sukhavati.

3.Aliran Chan atau Dhyana

Pendirinya adalah Bodhidharma atau Damo Dashi, patriark ke-28 setelah Mahakasyapa. Inti ajarannya adalah membebaskan diri dari kata-kata yang dianggap sebagai kebenaran sementara. Oleh karenanya, aliran Ch'an tidak begitu menekankan pada sutra, melainkan pada realisasi hakikat segenap fenomena secara langsung. Salah satu metodanya adalah menggunakan pertanyaan kontemplatif yang disebut gong-an, misalnya "Bagaimanakah wajahmu sebelum engkau dilahirkan?"

4.Aliran Mizong atau Tantra.

Yang membawa aliran ini ke Tiongkok adalah Bhikshu Amogavajra dan Subharakarasimha. Penekanannya adalah meditasi pada mantra, mudra, dan visualisasi, yang merupakan wujud triguhya atau tiga rahasia (sanmi), yakni rahasia tubuh, ucapan, dan pikiran. Sutra utamanya adalah Mahavairocana Sutra dan Vajrasekhara Sutra.

5.Aliran Tiantai atau Panggung Surgawi.

Pendirinya adalah Zhiyi. Pokok filsafatnya adalah segenap fenomena terbentuk dari satu kilasan pikiran saja (yinian sanqian)= Satu kilasan pikiran menciptakan tiga ribu fenomena. Sutra utamanya adalah Saddharmapundarika Sutra atau Miaofa Lianhuajing.

Sebenarnya di Tiongkok juga pernah berkembang aliran-aliran kecil lainnya seperti aliran Vinaya (Lu) tetapi tidak berkembang lama. Selain itu juga ada aliran Sarvastivada yang masih sekerabat dengan Theravada, namun juga tidak berkembang. Aliran Faxiang sendiri juga tidak berkembang lama di Tiongkok, namun masih tetap lestari di Jepang dengan nama aliran Hossho.

Demikianlah secara ringkas agama Buddha di Tiongkok. Jika ingin membahas agama Buddha tentunya lebih tepat yang ada kaitannya dengan budaya dan sejarah Tiongkok. Terima kasih atas perhatian dan pengertiannya.

 Ivan Taniputera , 10151275939902436
5 Desember 2012

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by pfctdayelise , Gunung Lushan (庐山) Tempat Aliran Jingtu Berkembang ,


Last modified onWednesday, 05 December 2012 08:41
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Sejarah


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Budaya


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Tionghoa


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Seni


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Filsafat


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Sains


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Esai & Opini


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Resensi Buku


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Album Foto


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 652

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 654