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BENTANGAN BUDAYA VISUAL TIONGHOA Sejak Prasejarah hingga Kontemporer (1)
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BENTANGAN BUDAYA VISUAL TIONGHOA Sejak Prasejarah hingga Kontemporer (1)

  • Written by  Deni Junaedi
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Budaya-Tionghoa.Net|Kendati belum disadari secara luas, fakta sejarah menunjukkan bahwa budaya visual Tionghoa di Indonesia telah ada sejak zaman prasejarah dan terus berlangsung hingga masa kontemporer. Dengan demikian eksistensinya telah ada jauh sebelum pengaruh yang datang dari India, Timur Tengah, apalagi Barat. Dalam bentangan masa yang panjang itu, representasi budaya tersebut disertai beragam konsep dan situasi sosial di belakangnya.

Kebudayaan visual Tionghoa meliputi ranah yang sangat luas. Dalam terminologi estetika modern, jenisnya dapat dikategorikan sebagai seni murni, kriya, desain, maupun arsitektur. Seni murni termasuk lukisan maupun patung; kriya meliputi ketrampilan pembuatan keramik hingga tekstil; desain mengkover rancangan produk sehari-hari dari iklan sampai peniti; dan arsitektur mencakup rumah tinggal hingga tempat peribadatan.

Jejak Panjang Berbagai Karya Visual Tionghoa

Arkeolog kawakan Indonesia, R. Soekmono, mencatat bahwa nekara yang ditemukan di Sangean Sulawesi Tengah terdapat gambar penunggang kuda beserta pengiringnya dalam pakaian Tartar, Tiongkok.[1] Langsung maupun tidak, ini menunjukkan hubungan antara Nusantara dengan Tiongkok. Nekara merupakan alat musik perkusi seperti gendang berpinggang; artefak yang ditengarai sebagai piranti upacara ritual ini seluruhnya terbuat dari perunggu. Kebudayaan perunggu masuk ke Nusantara sekitar tahun 500 SM.[2] Bernet Kempers dalam Ancient Indonesia Art pun menyatakan, berbagai dekorasi yang ada di nekara mengingatkan pada motif yang tersebar di Tiongkok Selatan, selain Asia Tengah dan Eropa Timur.[3] Saat itu Nusantara masih berada dalam periode prasejarah, karena prasasti tertua dari Kutai baru muncul sekitar tahun 400 Masehi.[4] Tahun 500 SM sering disebut-sebut sebagai gelombang kedua kedatangan nenek moyang bangsa Indonesia; sebelumnya, tahun 2000 SM, para pengembara yang juga berasal dari daerah Yunan, Tiongkok Selatan, berdatangan pada gelombang pertama.[5]

Pengaruh Tiongkok pada masa prasejarah tidak sekedar tampak pada figur pasukan Tartar. Soedarso Sp., pakar seni rupa dari Institut Seni Indonesia (ISI) Yogyakarta, menetapkan ragam hias yang berasal dari Tiongkok, yaitu “Corak Zhou Akhir”, sebagai salah satu yang berkembang kala itu, disamping “Corak Monumental” dan “Corak Dongsong”. Corak Zhou Akhir menekankan irama garis yang melengkung-lengkung memenuhi ruang tanpa membentuk komposisi simetris; corak yang berkembang di daerah Kalimantan ini berbeda dengan Corak Monumental yang berupa figur nenek-moyang maupun motif simbolis yang digambar secara frontal, maupun Corak Dong Song yang berupa ornamen dekoratif ritmis.[6] Di Tiongkok, Dinasti Zhou berkuasa sejak 1122 hingga 256 SM; pada masa itu seni lukis berkembang menjadi wahana baru untuk menghiasi benda-benda perunggu.[7]

Ketika Nusantara memasuki masa Klasik, atau saat Kerajaan Hindu dan Buddha berkuasa, pengaruh visual Tionghoa tidaklah surut. Beberapa candi di Jawa Timur, seperti Candi Jalatunda yang dibangun abad ke-10 atau Candi Panataran yang didirikan pada masa Majapahit abad ke-13, reliefnya menampakan ragam hias awan yang khas Tiongkok. Di situs Trowulan Mojokerto Jawa Timur pun ditemukan kendi yang serupa dengan wadah air porselin buatan Tiongkok Dinasti Ming maupun patung kepala pria Tionghoa. Unsur arsitektural Tiongkok juga ditemukan di Bali pada bangunan pura maupun Istana. Di Gianjar, misalnya, pengaruh itu ditunjukkan pada gaya atap istana, tetapi bangunan ini kini telah dipugar.[8]

Ketika Kesultanan Islam berjaya di Nusantara budaya visual Tionghoa juga turut mewarnai. Hiasan di Keraton Kasepuhan Cirebon jelas menunjukkan hal itu. Aneka keramik Tionghoa masa Dinasti Ming menempel di seluruh dinding yang terbuat dari batu bata merah. Di salah satu sisi keramik terdapat relief bunga teratai yang dijuluki kembang kanigaran karya pemahat Tiongkok.[9] Pemasangan piringan keramik yang sama juga tampak pada pintu gerbang masjid bersejarah di Gresik Jawa Timur.[10] Ukiran di masjid Mantingan yang dibangun sekitar tahun 1550 juga menunjukkan motif bunga yang berasal dari Tionghoa.[11]                  

Pembahasan tentang budaya visual Tonghoa sering memberikan penekanan pada keramik, karena artefak ini memang menunjukkan pencapaian kualitas yang mengagumkan dan kuantitas yang mencengangkan. Dalam pandangan pengamat keramik Noor Sudiyati, keramik Tiongkok memiliki beberapa dimensi yang menarik untuk dicermati, seperti: bentuk, fungsi, warna glasir, teknis pembuatan, maupun unsur ornament yang memiliki makna tertentu.[12] Keramik Tiongkok bertebaran di bumi Nusantara, baik yang berasal dari Dinasti Han (206SM-220), Tang (618-906), Song (906-1279), Yuan (1279-1368), Ming (1368-1644), maupun Qing (1644-1912).[13]

Kolektor keramik Handoyo Susanto, yang pernah menjadi ketua Himpunan Keramik Indonesia (HKI), membagi tiga jenis keramik Tiongkok, yaitu guan-yao, min-yao, dan nyonya ware. Keramik guan-yao (imperial ware) menempati derajat paling unggul karena dikerjakan dengan keahlian tinggi untuk dipersembahkan bagi raja atau keluarga istana; jenis ini biasa disebut tembikar kerajan. Keramik min-yao (export ware) juga disebut keramik rakyat; karya ini diciptakan untuk mengatasi keterbatasan tembikar kerajaan; kendati demikian, karya ini tidak kalah menarik. Keramik nyonya ware merupakan keramik yang langsung dipesan para ibu ke Tiongkok; keramik ini memiliki warna ngejreng.[14]

Motif keramik Tionghoa yang ada di Kesultanan Cirebon tersebut pada gilirannya mempengaruhi motif batik yang dikenal dengan nama mega mendung atau awan-awanan. Motif indah yang berupa gumpalan awan dalam komposisi biru tua hingga muda ini kini digemari di berbagai pelosok Nusantara; pun tampak keren nan unik untuk dipakai di luar negeri. Anindito Prasetyo mencatat, kemunculan motif ini berlatar belakang pernikahan Sunan Gunung Jati dengan putri Tiongkok Ong Tle yang memiliki perhatian besar pada seni.[15] Menurut catatat sejarawan De Graaf dan Pigeaud, Sunan Gunung Jati adalah tokoh Islam yang berhasil memerdekaan ibu kota Kesultanan Cirebon pada pertengahan abad ke-16.[16]

Sejak diciptakan, motif mega mendung hampir dapat dipastikan tidak pernah ditinggalkan penggunaannya, termasuk pada masa penjajahan Belanda. Akan tetapi, menurut Denys Lombard, Belanda menganggap orang Tionghoa sebagai bangsa (natie) tersendiri, sehingga itu mengucilkannya.[17] Bahkan, ungkap Kees van Dijk, orang Tionghoa dilarang memakai pakaian pribumi Indonesia atau pakaian orang Eropa. Ketika seorang Tionghoa mencoba mantel terusan dan topi khas Eropa, ia akan dilarang.[18]

Namun demikian, teknologi cetak yang dibawa masuk oleh Barat ke ke Nusantara pada awal abad ke-20 dapat meragamkan budaya visual Tionghoa. Iklan obat tradisonal Tiongkok, misalnya, diberi ilustrasi orang berkostum Tionghoa.[19] Selain iklan, komik Tionghoa juga ikut mewarnai. Dalam disertasi berbahasa Perancis yang kemudian diterjemahkan dalam buku Komik Indonesia, Marcel Bonneff mencatat bahwa komik Tionghoa memiliki pengaruh. Pada surat kabar Sin Po yang terbit pada tahun 1930-an muncul tokoh Put On yang sangat digemari pembaca. Tokoh Tionghoa rendah hati itu digambarkan bertubuh gendut; lelaki sederhana yang mewakili rakyat kecil ibu kota ini berbicara dengan dialek Jakarta.[20]



[1] R. Soekmono, Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 1 (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, edisi ke-3, cetakan ke-28, 2012), 66.

[2] Sp. Soedarso, “Seni Rupa Indonesia dalam Masa Prasejarah”, dalam Mochtar Kusuma-Atmadja, et al.,ed. Perjalanan Seni Rupa Indonesia dari Zaman Prasejarah hingga Masa Kini (Jakarta: Panitia Pameran KIAS, 1990-1991), 17.

[3] A.J. Bernet Kemper, Ancient Indonesia Art (Amsterdam: C.P.J. Van Der Peet, 1959), 29.

[4] R. Soekmono, Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2 (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, edisi ke-3, cetakan ke-26, 2010), 35.

[5] Aryo Sunaryo, Ornamen Nusantara Kajian Khusus tentang Ornamen Indonesia (Semarang: Dahara Prize, 2009), 7.

[6] Soedarso, 1991, 18-19.

[7] Ivan Taniputra. History of China (Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media Group, 2008), 123.

[8] Wiyoso Yudoseputo, “Pengaruh Cina dalam Seni Indonesia”, dalam Hilda Soematri, Indonesia Heritage: Seni Rupa (Jakarta: Grolier International, 2002),14.

[9] E. Pudjiachirusanto, “Keraton Kasepuhan Cirebon Ketika ‘Bouroq’ dan Burung Hong Bercumbu”, dalam majalah Warisan Indonesia (Bekasi: Media Widya Delasiga, Vol. I, No. 08, 15 Agustus – 15 September 2011), 66-70.

[10] H. Aboebakar, Sedjarah Mesdjid dan Amal Ibadah dalamnya (Jakarta-Banjarmasin: Adil, 1955), 187.

[11] R. Soekmono, Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 3 (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, edisi ke-3, cetakan ke-23, 2012), 87-88.

[12] Noor Sudiyati, “Keramik Cina Menguak Peradaban Manusia”, dalam Jurnal Seni Rupa dan Desain Ars (Yogyakarta: FSR ISI Yogyakarta, No. 10, Januari – April 2009), 2.

[13] Eddy Soetriyono, “Borobudur dan Porselin China Kuno”, dalam Majalah Seni Rupa Visual Arts (Jakarta: April – Mei 2006), 109-110.

[14] Handoyo Susanto, “Berburu Keramik China”, dalam Majalah Seni Rupa Visual Arts (Jakarta: Vol. 6, No. 33, Oktober – November 2009), 90-93.

[15] Anindito Prasetyo, Batik Karya Agung Warisan Budaya Dunia (Yogyakarta: Pura Pustaka, 2010), 59.

[16] H.J. de Graaf, & Th. G. Th. Pigeaud, Kerajaan-Kerajaan Islam Pertama di Jawa Kajian Sejarah Politik Abad ke-15 dan ke-16, terj. Pustaka Grafitipers dan KITLV(Jakarta: Pustaka Grafitipers, cetakan ke-2, 1986), 142.

[17] Denys Lombard, Nusa Jawa: Silang Budaya Kajian Sejarah Terpadu Bagian II: Jaringan Asia (Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, cetakan ke-4. 2008), 244.

[18] Kees van Dijk, “Sarung, Jubah, dan Celana: Penampilan sebagai Sarana Pembedaan dan Diskriminasi”, dalam Henk Schulte Nordholt, Outward Appearances: Trend, Identitas, Kepentingan (Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2005), 68.

[19] Hermanu, Pikat: Pameran Iklan Cetak Generasi Ke-2 (Yogyakarta: Bentara Budaya Yogyakarta, 2006), 20.

[20] Marcel Bonneff, Komik Indonesia (Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia bekerjasama dengan Forum Jakarta-Paris, cetakan ke-3, 2008), 19-20.

 

(Bersambung ke bagian 2)

Catatan admin : Ini adalah salah satu naskah yang dikirimkan pada lomba menulis artikel budaya Tionghoa. Tulisan di bawah ini sebenarnya baik, namun sayang karena persyaratan teknis yang tidak dipenuhi sehingga tidak dapat meraih juara.

 

Oleh: Deni Junaedi*

Deni Junaedi adalah dosen Estetika dan Sejarah Seni Rupa Indonesia di Institut Seni Indonesia (ISI) Yogyakarta maupun Modern School of Design (MSD) Yogykarta. Pria kelahiran Sukorejo Kendal 21 Juni 1973 ini juga aktif sebagai wartawan majalah Visual Art dan pernah mengelola majalah Makna Media Para Perupa. Tulisan yang dihasilkan berbentuk penelitian, publikasi ilmiah, buku, buku ajar, makalah seminar, maupun opini lepas di media massa. Selain itu, ia juga mengikuti berbagai pameran seni rupa, antara lain digelar di Yogyakarta, Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Solo, Semarang, Bali, Budapest, Eger, Portugal, Singapura, Hongkong, Tokyo, dan New York. Penghargaan yang pernah diraih antara lain adalah Point Tertinggi Pameran Kartu Pos Indonesia-Jepang tahun 1997; Pemenang Kompetisi Seni Lukis Total Indonesie-YSRI 2000; Nominator Indofood Art Awards 2003; Nominator Jakarta Art Award 2008; dan Nominator Indonesia Art Award 2010. Kegiatan yang pernah diketuai, antara lain, Pameran Besar Seni Rupa FSR ISI Yogyakarta The Highlight  2008 dan Pasar Seni FKY XV 2003.

 

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Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Sejarah


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Budaya


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Tionghoa


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Seni


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Filsafat


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Sains


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Esai & Opini


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Resensi Buku


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Album Foto


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 652

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 654