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Sekilas Sejarah Tiongkok ( bagian 2 )
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Sekilas Sejarah Tiongkok ( bagian 2 )

  • Written by  Thng Liang Wu 汤亮羽& Liao King Hian 廖敬贤
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Pada zaman Dinasti Han ini, terutama zaman Kaisar Han Wudi [Han Bu Te] 汉武帝, Tiongkok mencapai zaman keemasan. Karena itu rakyatnya sangat bangga menyebut dirinya orang Han. Istilah bangsa Han ini berlangsung sampai sekarang. Bangsa Han merupakan sekitar 94% dari penduduk Tiongkok saat ini. Orang Inggris menyebutnya the Han Chinese. Orang Tionghoa Indonesia hampir 100% adalah keturunan Han. Bahasanyapun disebut bahasa Han (Hanyu 汉语) dan hurufnya disebut huruf Han (Hanzi 汉字). Bahasa Mandarin adalah dialek standar dari bahasa Han, sedangkan bahasa Hokkian 福建, Kheq 客, Konghu 广府, Tiociu 潮州, Hokchnia 福清, dll. yang kita kenal di Indonesia merupakan dialek dari bahasa Han. Di luar Tiongkok, bangsa Han ini lebih dikenal sebagai orang Tionghoa 中华 atau Huaren 华人, sedangkan bahasa Han disebut bahasa Hua atau bahasa Tionghoa (Huawen 华文/Huayu 华语).

 

 

Liu Bang 刘邦
Pendiri Dinasti Han

 

Kaisar Han Wudi  汉武帝
Kaisar Dinasti Han

 

Setelah sekitar 400 tahun berdiri, kerajaan Hanmenjadi lemah.Kekuasaan jatuh ke tangan perdana menteri Cao Cao [Co Cho] 曹操, sedang yang tidak puas mendirikan kerajaan lain.Akhirnya Dinasti Han terpecah menjadi tiga negara yang berperang satu sama lain untuk memperluas wilayahnya. Di Utara ada kerajaan Wei [Gui] 魏, di timur ada kerajaan Wu [Gou] 吴, dan di barat ada kerajaan Shu [Siok] 蜀. Periode ini disebut zaman Tiga Negara [Sam Kok] 三国.

Pada saat ini muncul beberapa nama yang terkenal dalam sejarah Tiongkok, yaitu: Zhuge Liang [Cukat Liang] 诸葛亮 alias Kongming [Khong Bing] 孔明, seorang penasehat militer kerajaan Shu yang sangat pandai; kaisar kerajaan Shu yaitu Liu Bei [Lao Pi] 刘备, bersama kedua saudara angkatnya Guan Yu [Kuan Yi] 关羽 dan Zhang Fei [Tnio Hui] 张飞.

 

Liu Bei刘备, Guan Yu关羽, dan Zhang Fei 张飞
Mengangkat saudara di taman bunga persik

Sampai dengan saat ini, orang Tionghoa seluruh dunia masih sangat menghormati mereka, terutama memuja Guan Yu yang dianggap sebagai simbol gagah berani, jujur, bermoral tinggi dan welas asih.Ia disebut Guangong [Kuan Kong] 关公. Gong adalah sebutan kehormatan bagi orang yang sangat dihormati. Di mana-mana masih bisa kita temukan kelenteng yang memuja Guangong.

Kaisar Shu, Liu Bei, adalah keturunan Kaisar Han.SedangkanKaisar Wei adalah keturunan Cao Cao [Co Cho], perdana menteri Dinasti Han yang mengendalikan pemerintahan dan menyandera kaisar terakhir DinastiHan. Cao Pi [Co Phi] 曹丕, kaisar pertama negara Wei [Gui], adalah anak Cao Cao.

 

Cao Cao 曹操 (Ayah Cao Pi, kaisar pertama Negara Wei)

 

Zhuge Liang  诸葛亮
Penasehat Militer Negara Shu

Akhirnya Shu dan Wu dikalahkan Wei, tapi turunan Kaisar Wei sendiri, yaitu keturunan Cao Cao, dikudeta oleh turunan penasehat militernya, Sima Yi [Suma Yi] 司马懿.Muncullah dinasti baru, yaitu Dinasti Jin [Cin] 晋 (265420) yang mempersatukan kembali seluruh Tiongkok. Dinasti Jin berkuasa sekitar 150 tahun. Setelah Dinasti Jin ambruk, Tiongkok terpecah-belah kembali. Bangsa-bangsa yang tinggal disebelah utara Tiongkok menggunakan kesempatan saat negara sedang terpecah belah dan lemah untuk menyerbu. Terjadilah huru-hara besar yang disebut Wuhu Luanhua [Ngou Ou Luan Hua] 五胡乱华 (Lima sukunon-Hanmengaduk Tiongkok).Pada zaman inilah terjadi imigrasi besar-besaran orang Han dari utara ke selatan dan menghasilkan kelompok masyarakat yang kita kenal di Indonesia sebagai orang Hokkian, orang Tiociu, orang Konghu, dan kemudian orang Hakka [Kheq].

Hasil dari kerusuhan ini, Tiongkok terpecah menjadi dua.Sebuah dinasti di utara dan sebuah lagi di selatan, zaman ini disebut zaman Dinasti Utara-Selatan 南北朝. Baik dinasti di utara maupun di selatan, semua berumur pendek.Dari tahun 386 sampai tahun 581, di utara 5 dinasti silih berganti; sedang di selatan dari tahun 420 sampai tahun 589, empat dinasti silih berganti. Beberapa dari dinasti utara diperintah oleh suku non-Han, tetapi karena kebudayaan Tionghoa lebih kuat dan lebih tua umurnya, maka suku-suku non-Han ini terasimilasi menjadi orang Han. Banyak suku non-Han yang mengubah sne dan namanya menjadi Han adalah pada zaman ini, bahkan dipelopori oleh kaisarnya sendiri. Kaisar Dinasti Wei [Gui] Utara 北魏 yang bersne Tuoba [Thokpuat] 拓跋 mengubah snenya menjadi Yuan [Guan] 元.

 

 

Yang Jian 杨坚
Pendiri Dinasti Sui

 

Li Shimin 李世民
 Kaisar kedua Dinasti Tang

 

Dinasti Utara-Selatan ini akhirnya digabungkan lagi oleh Yang Jian [Yno Kian] 杨坚 yang mendirikan Dinasti Sui [Sui] 隋 (581618). Sebuah terusan panjang dari utara dekat Beijing [Pak Knia] 北京 ke selatan dekat Hangzhou [Hang Ciu] 杭州 dibangun agar kaisar kedua, Sui Yangdi [Sui Yang Te] 隋炀帝, dapat menikmati perjalanan dari utara ke selatan dengan nyaman. Terusan tersebut sampai sekarang menjadi jalan air utama di Tiongkok.Dinasti Sui tidak berumur panjang, ia ambruk pada generasi ke-tiga.

Li Yan [Li Yan] 李渊 mendirikan Dinasti Tang [Tong] 唐. Pada saat pemerintahan kaisar ke-dua, Li Shimin [Li Si Bin] 李世民, Tiongkok kembali mencapai puncak kejayaan. Sehingga orang Tionghoa pun merasa bangga kalau disebut orang Tang, atau Tangren[1] [Tng Lang] 唐人. Sampai saat ini untuk dialek selatan, mereka menyebut orang Tionghoa sebagai Tangren [Tng Lang] dan menyebut negara Tiongkok sebagai Tangshan[2] [Tng Snua] 唐山, yang berarti Gunung Tang.

Dinasti Tang ini dijatuhkan oleh pemberontakan dan didirikanlah Dinasti Liang [Liang] 梁 yang hanya berumur 16 tahun (907923).Dinasti Liang kemudian digantikan oleh dinasti lain yang juga berumur pendek, yaitu DinastiTang Kemudian (Hou Tang) 后唐 (923936). Dinasti ini adalah lanjutan dari Dinasti Tang terdahulu. Kemudian digantikan oleh DinastiJin Kemudian (Hou Jin) 后晋 (936947), kemudian DinastiHan Kemudian (Hou Han) 后汉 (947950), dan DinastiZhou Kemudian (Hou Zhou) 后周 (951960). Dapat dibayangkan, lima Dinasti silih berganti dalam waktu 53 tahun dan pergantian biasanya dilakukan melalui kerusuhan atau pemberontakan. Kekacauan dan ketidakstabilan ini menyebabkan banyak penduduk Tiongkok dari utara sekali lagi berbondong-bondong pindah ke selatan.



[1] Dalam dialek Konghu: Thongyvn, Hakka: Thongnyin, Tiociu: Tngnang

[2] Dalam dialek Konghu dan Hakka: Thongsan

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Sejarah


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Budaya


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Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Tionghoa


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Seni


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Filsafat


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Sains


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Esai & Opini


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Resensi Buku


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Album Foto


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 652

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 654