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Guan Li 冠礼 atau upacara kedewasaan anak lelaki menurut adat istiadat bangsa Tionghoa
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Guan Li 冠礼 atau upacara kedewasaan anak lelaki menurut adat istiadat bangsa Tionghoa

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Guan Li 冠礼 atau upacara kedewasaan anak lelaki menurut adat istiadat bangsa Tionghoa

Guan 冠 adalah penutup kepala yang sangat penting dalam komposisi atau bagian dari busana tradisional orang Tionghoa ( Hanfu 汉服), 冠 Guan dalam kamus Shuowen 《说文解字》 menjelaskan : “弁冕之总名也。” artinya nama umum dari Mian3 冕 dan Bian4 弁. Mian 冕 adalah topi yang dipakai oleh kaisar/ raja jaman dulu, sedangkan Bian 弁 adalah sabuk pengikat kepala yang biasanya terbuat dari kain beludru, sutra, maupun kulit rusa putih.

冠 guan , aksara ini terdiri dari tiga komponen huruf yakni “冖” mi4, yang artinya menutup dengan kain maupun sutra, kedua terdiri dari komponen aksara 元 yuan yang berarti kepala, Xu Kai mengatakan 徐锴曰:“取其在首,故从元。古亦谓冠为元服" artinya mengambil maknanya yang berada di kepala , karena itu memakai komposisi aksara Yuan 元 , jaman dulu "guan " 冠 disebut Yuanfu 元服 (pakaian kepala) . Dan yang ketiga adalah “寸” cun4 ukuran zaman dulu , kalau sekarang diartikan inchi, dan juga berarti memperkirakan, perkiraan, takaran, ukuran. seperti yang dikatakan dalam Kitab Sejarah Dinasti Han yang dikarang Ban Gu 班固 mengatakan 《汉书·律历志》云:“度量衡皆起于黄钟之律,一黍为分,十分为寸,十寸为一尺。又寸者,忖也,有法度可忖也。凡法度字皆从寸” . Dalam kamus shuowen-nya Xu Shen mengatakan 《说文》说:“冠有法制,故从寸。” ( penutup kepala memiliki sistem hukum, karena itu tersusun dari aksara Cun = takaran).

 

Jadi Guan atau penutup kepala disebut 首服 "pakaian" kepala, mengapa disebut pakaian? karena dalam busana bangsa Han ( Hanfu) penutup kepala merupakan salah satu bagian yang terintegrasi dalam busana orang tionghoa yang meliputi penutup kepala, baju/ jubah, celana/ rok, kaos kaki, dan sepatu, serta pernak pernik lainnya seperti ikat pinggang, tali gantungan pinggang dll.

Guan atau penutup kepala bangsa Tionghoa digunakan oleh bangsawan jaman dulu secara arti luas, sedangkan arti sempit adalah menunjuk pada "mian" topi kaisar/raja dan sabuk kepala atau " bian". 《礼记》:“冠者礼之始也 dalam Li Ji / Catatan Ritual zaman Zhou, mengatakan " ritual dimulai dari penutup kepala/ guan". bangsa tionghoa adalah bangsa yang mengutamakan upacara ritual, dan "guan" merupakan titik tolak dari ritual bangsa Tionghoa. jadi bisa kita lihat begitu pentingnya " guan " ini, sehingga Kong Zi pernah mengatakan : 子曰:“其礼如世子之冠,冠于阼者,以著代也。醮于客位,加其有成。三加弥尊,导喻其志。冠而字之,敬其名也。虽天子之元子,犹士也,其礼无变。天下无生而贵者,故也行冠事必于祖庙,以裸享之礼以将之,以金石之乐节之,所以自卑而尊先祖,示不敢擅。” (孔子家语) ( tentang ritual kedewasaan memakai guan)

Li 礼 atau ritual, tata krama, upacara, tata cara, peri sopan santun. Bangsa Tionghoa adalah bangsa yang menjunjung tinggi budaya tata krama yang tinggi/agung. Bisa kita lihat kata Huaxia yakni sebutan zaman dulu untuk bangsa tionghoa, hua berarti megah, indah, bunga, makmur, subur, sedangkan pengertian Xia adalah tata krama, sopan santun. jadi bangsa Huaxia ( cikal bakal bangsa Tionghoa) adalah bangsa yang memiliki tata krama yang luhur serta memiliki pakaian/ busana , bangunan, yang indah dan megah.

冠礼 Guanli adalah ritual atau seremoni atau upacara kedewasaan anak laki-laki bangsa Tionghoa ( Han) , anak lelaki yang dianggap sudah akil balig untuk meneruskan silsilah marga/klan leluhur, dan dianggap sudah cakap untuk bekeluarga ( menikah) biasanya dalam upacara kedewasaan ini anak lelaki berumur 20 tahun sudah harus melaksanakan upacara ini, yakni para tetuah akan memakaikan topi/ penutup kepala kepada anak tersebut sehingga dianggap sah sudah dewasa.

Budaya mengenai ritual, tata krama atau kita sebut 礼文化 li wenhua merupakan inti daripada budaya bangsa Tionghoa (华夏文化的核心) ada lima macam "li" ritual yakni 吉礼 ji li 、凶礼 xiong li、军礼 jun li、宾礼 bing li 、嘉礼 jia li , dan 冠礼 guan (ritual penutup kepala) termasuk kedalam 嘉礼 jia li, " guan li " upacara memakai penutup kepala/ topi merupaka upacara pertama kalinya seorang anak lelaki yang beranjak dewasa. yang mana " guan li" ini sebagai titik tolak/ titik awal seseorang untuk memahami upacara, ritual, tata krama bangsa Tionghoa, dan sebagai awal untuk memasuki sistem ritual/tata krama bangsa tionghoa. dalam Li JI atau kitab Catatan Ritual mengatakan 《礼记·内则》 : hidup setiap manusia dibagi menjadi berbagai tahapan, setiap tahapan ada tugas-tugasnya tertentu. umur dua puluh tahun mengadakan upacara pemakaian Guan ( penutup kepala) , dari upacara inilah dimulai untuk belajar mengenai Li / tata krama ( “二十而冠,始学礼”) , seorang anak lelaki setelah melewati upacara pemakaian penutup kepala ini, akan mendapatkan bimbingan dan pemikiran yang baru dalam menjalani hidup selanjutnya, dalam Li JI bagian makna Guan / penutup kepala 《礼记·冠义》 mengatakan upacara pemakaian penutup kepala atau guan li merupakan awal daripada tata krama/ liyi.

“凡人之所以为人者,礼义也。礼义之始,在于正容体、齐颜色、顺辞令。容体正、颜色齐、辞令顺,而后礼义备。以正君臣、亲父子、和长幼,君臣正、父子亲、长幼和,而后礼义立。故冠而后服备。服备而后容体正、颜色齐、辞令顺,故曰:冠者礼之始也"

Dengan upacara Guan ini seorang anak lelaki telah dianggap dewasa, bagi masyarakat Tionghoa , upacara kedewasaan ini, setiap individu harus hidup sesuai dengan "li" , menegakan diri dalam masyarakat sesuai dengan "li" . cara berpakaian, berbusana, berbicara, terhadap orang, tindak tanduk, sebagai seorang pelajar, anaknya orang tua, sebagai pejabat , atau sebagai pemimpin bangsa, semuanya harus sesuai dengan standar kesusilaan / etika / norma/ tata krama bangsa tionghoa.

Singkat kata, dengan upacara Guan ini adalah untuk mengingatkan bahwa sianak ini yang dalam keluarga " masih ingusan" setelah adanya upacara ini menjadi seorang dewasa yang akan menapak kedalam masyarakat, menjadi seorang yang memiliki " li" , xiao 孝 bakti,、 ti 悌 mengasihi dan menghormati saudara-saudaranya, zhong忠 berintegritas,shun 顺 patuh, sehingga menjadi seorang yang berguna bagi bangsa negara masyarakat dan keluarganya. Dengan demikian maka akan menjadi manusia yang sesungguhnya.

 

 

 
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Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Tionghoa


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Seni


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Filsafat


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Sains


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Esai & Opini


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Resensi Buku


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Album Foto


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 652

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 654