Strict Standards: Declaration of JParameter::loadSetupFile() should be compatible with JRegistry::loadSetupFile() in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 512

Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.internal_encoding is deprecated in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 28

Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.input_encoding is deprecated in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 29

Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.output_encoding is deprecated in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 30

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 652

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 654
Bahasa Menunjukkan Bangsa.
A+ A A-

Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/templates/gk_music_free/lib/framework/helper.layout.php on line 175

Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/includes/application.php on line 539

Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/templates/gk_music_free/lib/framework/helper.layout.php on line 175

Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/includes/application.php on line 539

Strict Standards: Declaration of JCacheControllerView::get() should be compatible with JCacheController::get($id, $group = NULL) in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/cache/controller/view.php on line 137

Bahasa Menunjukkan Bangsa.

  • Written by  Liaw Kok Meng
  • font size decrease font size increase font size
  • Print
  • Email

Orang asing yang baru sekali ke Indonesia sering kali kaget dan  jengkel. Di mana-mana ditanya "sudah menikah?" oleh orang yang baru  dikenal. Kalau dijawab "belum", disergap pertanyaan "Mengapa belum?"  Kalau dijawab sudah, segera digugat: "Di mana istri/suami kamu?" , disusul oleh pertanyaan berikutnya "Apakah sudah punya anak?"

 

Kalau diberi tahu pasangan mereka tidak ikut  ke Indonesia, segera dibalas "Kok enggak ikut?" . Kalau diberi tahu  mereka belum punya anak, "Mengapa belum?" . Kalaupun dikatakan sudah  punya satu anak, muncul protes: "Kok cuma satu? Kenapa cuma satu?"

Orang asing itu tidak paham betapa ganas "status keluarga" dalam  pembentukan identitas di Indonesia. Orang Indonesia sendiri sering  tidak paham apa yang aneh dalam basa-basi. Ini bukan berarti orang  Indonesia lebih mementingkan keluarga, orang Barat mementingkan  individu. Di Indonesia status keluarga bisa menentukan status,  kewibawaan, koneksi, dan mungkin juga kira-kira berapa isi dompet orang.

Kalau Anda ke Malaysia atau Singapura, bersiaplah ditanya berkali- kali apa etnisitas Anda. Sekali Anda menjawab dengan satu istilah,  nyaris seluruh sosok kehidupan Anda sudah ditebak oleh sang penanya: lingkungan  pergaulan anda, sekolah anda, selera makan dan pantangan anda, serta  batas tertinggi prospek karier Anda.

Di Jepang, usia dan tempat kerja menjadi pertanyaan paling lazim dalam berkenalan. Identitas  seseorang, martabatnya, gaji, dan jaminan masa depan sangat  ditentukan oleh soal-soal itu. Di Banglades orang yang berkenalan  malah lebih blak-blakan, "Berapa penghasilan kamu?"

Orang Barat tidak kurang dan tidak lebih "aneh". Kalau sedang  berkenalan, mereka lazim bertanya, "Kamu kerja apa?" Kedengarannya  santun, tapi ini eufemisme dari "Berapa gaji kamu?"

Biasanya yang bertanya  tidak secara sadar dan sengaja tanya soal itu. Namun "pekerjaan"  menentukan tingkat "harta", dan keduanya merupakan sebagian identitas  terpenting dalam masyarakat industrial kapital.

Bahasa tidak cuma menunjukkan bangsa. Ia juga bersaksi atas perubahan  sejarah.

Di mana pun di dunia, ada pertanyaan basa-basi yang  pernah "universal", yakni "Anda dari mana?". Pertanyaan ini  mengungkapkan kegagapan masyarakat abad ke-20 menghadapi gempuran  globalisasi.

Pertanyaan itu mengasumsikan ada kaitan erat antara  identitas orang dan sebuah lokasi geografi. Seakan-akan di tempat A,  semua orang lebih kurang punya identitas A.

Bajunya, bahasanya,  seninya, makanannya, wataknya, semuanya serba A. Pemikiran seperti  ini pernah menjadi dasar bangkitnya rasialisme. Juga dasar bagi  bangkitnya konsep "bumiputra", "pribumi", dan "putra daerah", selain "Asian values".

Kebiasaan itu berasal dari satu zaman ketika sebagian besar orang  lahir, besar, bekerja, menikah, mati dan dikubur di dusun yang sama. 

Interaksi antarkelompok masyarakat sangat terbatas. Kalau ada yang  merantau jauh, biasanya sementara, dan berusaha secepatnya pulang  kampung halaman. Lalu mati dan dikuburkan di tempat yang sama nenek  moyangnya lahir, besar, kawin, mati dan dikuburkan juga. Zaman itu  sudah punah. Tapi angan-angan dan kebiasaan dari zaman itu masih tercecer sampai sekarang.

Globalisasi memungkinkan atau mengharuskan semakin banyak orang  berpindah tempat dalam gelombang besar. Di tempat baru yang ditemui  bukan penduduk "pribumi", melainkan berbagai kumpulan perantau lain  yang beraneka. Di situ semuanya tidak menetap sampai mati, tetapi  berpindah-pindah lagi. Ikatan batin dan sosial orang dengan sebuah  tempat berpijak serba sementara, sekuler, dan retak.

Kini yang bernama Abdullah tidak harus beragama apa pun. Tidak juga  pasti berasal dari Asia Tengah atau Selatan. Ia bisa berkulit putih,  berambut pirang, atau lahir di Shanghai. Belajar sastra Perancis di  Jepang. Bercinta dengan Nona Liem yang kulitnya hitam, lahir di  Toronto, dan ahli dalam masak-memasak pasta Italia. Mereka mengadopsi  anak yang dinamai Sanjay dan kini belajar gamelan di Amsterdam.

Pertanyaan "Kamu dari mana?" jadi kedaluwarsa. Sebagai gantinya, "Kamu di mana?" menjadi norma baru yang mendunia.

Beberapa tahun lalu ketika telpon genggam masih langka, saya bersiap  ke Bangkok. Seorang sahabat yang tinggal di Bangkok saya kontak lewat  e-mail, dan saya tanya apakah bisa dijumpai. Ia memberikan nomor  telponnya dan berpesan agar saya menelponnya setiba di kota itu. 

Seminggu kemudian saya tiba di Bangkok dan menelponnya. Nomor yang  diberikan tidak salah. Teman itu menjawab, tapi perjumpaan harus  dibatalkan. Saat itu dia sedang di New York karena tugas mendadak.

Bagi generasi Internet dan SMS, "kamu di mana?" merupakan pertanyaan  pembuka yang wajib dan rutin. Posisi geografis pemilik sebuah alamat  e-mail atau nomor telepon tidak tetap dan tidak selalu mudah ditebak. 

Sebuah percakapan hanya dilanjutkan hanya setelah posisi "di mana"  menjadi jelas. Dan kisah berikutnya sangat ditentukan oleh faktor "di  mana" tadi. Faktor "dari mana" menjadi sangat tidak penting.

Sebuah alamat e-mail atau nomor telepon genggam tidak menjelaskan  identitas orang. Lain daripada sebuah alamat pos. Setiap orang bisa  punya beberapa alamat e-mail atau nomor telepon genggam. Semuanya  murah dan mudah diganti, kapan saja, dan berkali-kali dengan aneka  variasi. Jauh lebih mudah daripada berganti agama, warna rambut, ukuran perut, jenis kelamin, atau paspor.

Setiap hari jutaan orang merantau. Berbeda dari nenek moyangnya,  mereka tidak ingin, tidak perlu, atau tidak bisa, "pulang kampung". E-mail dan telepon memungkinkan mereka sewaktu-waktu menjangkau atau disapa suara sanak keluarga. Kampung halaman mereka sendiri telah  diserbu aneka gambar, suara, angan-angan, dan perantau dari aneka
penjuru dunia. Semua telah menjadi serba non-pribumi.

Liaw Kok Meng / Mailing-List Budaya Tionghua

 

Last modified onSaturday, 24 August 2013 22:21
Rate this item
(0 votes)
back to top
http://web.budaya-tionghoa.net/index.php/konten/esai/item/142-bahasa-menunjukkan-bangsa

Strict Standards: Non-static method oFBLikeBox::getData() should not be called statically in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_ofblikebox/mod_ofblikebox.php on line 24

Latest Articles


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428
  1. Trending
  2. Feature
  3. News
  4. Random

Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 423

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Sejarah


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Budaya


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Tionghoa


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Seni


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Filsafat


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Sains


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Esai & Opini


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 428

Resensi Buku


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Album Foto


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/helper.php on line 548

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: Non-static method NSP_GK4_Utils::cutText() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/modules/mod_news_pro_gk4/tmpl/layout.parts.php on line 198

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 652

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/budayati/public_html/web2/libraries/joomla/filter/input.php on line 654