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Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895

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Budaya-Tionghoa.Net | Setelah Restorasi Meiji , Jepang mengalami percepatan pembangunan di segala bidang dan muncul sebagai kekuatan dunia dalam waktu dua sama tiga dekade pasca Restorasi yang ditandai oleh kemenangan Jepang terhadap Russia.

Sebelumnya adalah Sino Japanese War I . Dinasti Qing memasuki masa surut bertemu dengan kebangkitan Jepang. Hasilnya adalah perebutan pengaruh kawasan , salah satunya adalah Korea, sebuah negara yang secara tradisi sejarah merupakan negara dalam sistem tributary Tiongkok.

Ketegangan antara Jepang dan Tiongkok memuncak di tahun 1894 dimana baik Jepang dan Tiongkok mengirim pasukan ke semenanjung Korea berujung pada kekalahan Tiongkok sekaligus menambah derita Dinasti Qing yang sudah mengalami pukulan bertubi-tubi sejak Perang Candu sekitar setengah abad sebelumnya.

Treaty Shimonoseki

17 April 1895

Lokasi Shimonoseki , Jepang
Partisipan Tiongkok , Jepang
Kesepakatan Ganti Rugi 200 juta Tael Kuping , Penyerahan Korea , Sebagian Manchuria , Taiwan dan Pescadores kepada Jepang.

China  recognizes  definitively  the  full  and  complete independence and autonomy of Korea, and in consequence, the payment of tribute and the performance of ceremonies and formalities by Korea to China in derogation  of  such  independence  and  autonomy,  shall wholly cease for the future.

China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty the following territories together with all fortifications, arsenals and public property thereon:
(1) The southern portion of the Province of Fêng- Tien within the following boundaries: The line of demarcation begins at the mouth of the
River Yalu and ascends that stream to the mouth of the River  An-ping;  from  thence  the  line  runs  to  Fêng-Huang;  from  thence  to  Hai-Cheng,  from  thence  toYing-Kow, forming a line which describes the southern portion  of  the  territory.  The  places  above  named  are
included in the ceded territory. When the line reaches the River Liao at Ying-Kow it follows the course of that
stream  to  its  mouth  where  it  terminates.  The  mid-channel of the River Liao shall be taken as the line of
demarcation. This cession also includes all Islands appertaining or belonging to the Province of Fêng-Tien situated in the eastern portion of the Bay of Liao-Tung and in the northern part of the Yellow Sea.
(2) The Island of Formosa together with all Islands appertaining  or  belonging  to  the  said  Island  of  Formosa.
(3) The Pescadores Group, that is to say, all Islands lying between the 119th  and 120th degrees of longitude east of Greenwich and the 23rd and 24th degrees of north latitude.

The alignments of the frontiers described in the preceding Article and shown on the annexed Map shall be subject to verification and demarcation on the spot, by a Joint Commission of Delimitation, consisting of two or more Japanese and two or more Chinese Delegates to be appointed immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this Act. In case the boundaries laid down in this Act are found to be defective at any point, either on account of topography or in consideration  of  good  administration,  it  shall  also  be  the duty  of  the  Delimitation  Commission  to  rectify  the same.
The Delimitation  Commission  will  enter  upon  its duties as soon as possible and will bring its labors to a conclusion within the period of one year after appointment.
The  alignments  laid  down  in  this  Act  shall,  however,  be  maintained  until  the  rectifications  of  the Delimitation Commission, if any are made, shall have received the approval of the Governments of Japan and China.

China agrees to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum of 200,000,000 Kuping Taels. The said sum to be paid  in  eight  instalments.  The  first  instalment  of 50,000,000 taels to be paid within six months, and the second  instalment  of  50,000,000  taels  to  be  paid within twelve months, after the exchange of the ratifications of this Act. The remaining sum to be paid in six  equal  annual  instalments  as  follows:  The  first  of such equal annual instalments to be paid within two years; the second within three years; the third within four years; the fourth within five years; the fifth within six  years,  and  the  sixth  within  seven  years,  after  the exchange of the ratifications of this Act. Interest at the rate of 5 per centum per annum shall begin to run on all unpaid portions of the said indemnity from the date the first instalment falls due.

Sumber :

  1. Fred  L.  Israel,  ed.,  Major  Peace  Treaties  of  Modern  History, 1648–2000 (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002), II: 1,101–1,110.
  2. Charles Phillips , Alan Axelrod , Encyclopedia of Historical Treaties and Alliances
Last modified onWednesday, 25 July 2012 10:33
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